Centre for Coastal and Deltiac Studies, University of Sindh Campus Thatta offers 4 Semester Master Degree Programm

M.Sc Coastal Zone Management

The Coastal Zone Management degree program focuses on contemporary problems and conflicts arising from increased use of coastal areas and emphasizes the evaluation of alternative policy management solutions. It is intended for employees of government and industry seeking career enhancement as well as for recent college graduates seeking careers in planning and management with government agencies, industries and other activities depending on or affecting the coastal zone or its resources. The program can also be of value for enhancement of careers in education.

MSc. Coastal Zone Management Course No. Course Title
1st Semester CZMT 500-501 Marine Geology
  CZMT 502-503 Marine Resources
  CZMT 504-505 Marine Chemistry
  CZMT 506-507 Marine Biology
  CZMT 508-509 Coastal Line of Pakistan
  CZMT 510-511 Marine Physics
2nd Semester CZMT 512-513 Marine Ecosystems
CZMT 514-515 Marine Biodiversity
CZMT 516-517 Marine Biogeochemistry
CZMT 518-519 Coastal Zone Interpretation
CZMT 520-521 Geology of Arabian Sea
CZMT 522-523 Marine Pollution and Control
3rd Semester CZMT 600-601 Environmental Toxicology
CZMT 602-603 Marine and Coastal Conservation
CZMT 604-605 Sea Level Changes and Coastal Zones
CZMT 606-607 Pakistan Marine Fishery Policy
CZMT 608-609 Ocean and Coastal Laws
CZMT 610-611 International Integrated Coastal Zone Management
4th  Semester CZMT 612-613 Coastal Environmental Security
  CZMT 614-615 Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems
  CZMT 616-617 Environmental Risk Assessment and Security
  CZMT 618-619 Management of Coastal Water Resources
  CZMT 620-621 Coastal Zone Management Dissertation
  CZMT 622 Comprehensive Viva Voce

Total credit hours: 72

Introduction to the geomorphology, sedimentation, stratigraphy, volcanism, structural geology, tectonics, and geological history of the oceans.Nature and distribution of sediments in continental shelf, slopes and abyssal plane. Coastal erosion and sedimentation processes. Sedimentary rocks and processes of Arabian Sea sediments.Geometry and tectonics of continental shelves of Sindh.

Identification of living and non-living resources on the coastal, seabed and offshore areas. Aggregates, sea salt. Gas hydrates, commercially important seabed minerals. Renewable energy from waves, tides, currents.Sustainable development of coastal and offshore resources. Non-Fish resources (sponges, crustacea, molluscan, echinoderms, turtles, mammals, seaweeds) Plankton fisheries and peral fisheries, exploration of local potential commercial species with reference to regional fisheries.Introduction to use of GIS as a tool for study of coastal resources.

General introduction and history, Chemical composition of seawater, Physical properties of seawater (Structure, Chlorinity, Salinity, Refractive index, Electrical conductivity, Density, Temperature), Dissolved gases Solubility, distribution, Atmospheric exchange, Minor and Major elements, Dissolved organic particulates, Radioisotopes, Primary secondary production in marine environment in relations to chemical constituents, basic marine sedimentary constituents inorganic deep sea sediment, pelagic and non-pelagic biogenous deep sea deposit, Chemical composition of deep sea sediments. Marine Carbonate Chemistry.

Introduction of life in the Sea.The Primary Producers.The Zooplankton.Marine Invertebrates, the Fishes, Marine Environments, Marine Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals, Marine Fisheries and Aquaculture. The Microbial World, Coral Reefs, biogeochemical cycles.Life on the Continental Shelf, Life near the Surface.Commercial use of sponges, snails.Environmental factors affecting the distribution of marine organisms.

Introduction to coastal line of Sindh, beaches, cliffs and headlands, bays and lagoons, mud flats, Indus estuary, Indus delta, tourism along coastline of Sindh.  Indus fan morphology and sediments.

Ocean dimentions, shape and bottom material, Physical Properties of Seawater, Chlorinity, salinity, thermal properties, density, pressure, optical properties, transmission of sound, formation of water masses, T-S diagram, Equation of state of seawater, General ocean circulation, dynamics of circulation, Ekman flow, Upwelling, convergence, Western and Eastern boundary currents, thermohaline circulation; Ocean Waves and Tides, Coastal Processes, Long shore currents, Rip currents, oceanography of Arabian sea, instruments and methods.

Structure and Function of Marine Ecosystems.Abiotic and biotic components of an ecosystem.Habitat and zonation.Primary Production, factor affecting primary productivity. Consumer in marine environment: Dynamics of populations, competition, Feeding and response, Food selection, Processing of conserved energy. Structure and dynamics: Marine communities, Trophic structure, Taxonomic structure, social structure, colonization and succession. Function of marine ecosystem: Nutrient cycling, Seasonal changes, Long-term and large scale changes.

The structure and functioning of Marine Biodiversity (from genes to habitats).Divisions of biodiversity, keystone species, ecosystem functioning, world’s marine biological diversity, marine hot spots-cold seeps, hydrothermal hotspots, marine biosphere reserves. Conservation, Laws for conservation, Marine protected areas. Conservation and Restoration of marine biodiversity and application of the above mentioned theories and methods in order to develop a sustainable use of the marine environment.

The Physical Chemistry of Seawater, the Crustal-Ocean-Atmosphere Factory, Salinity as a Conservative Tracer, the nature of Chemical Transformation in the Ocean. Gas Solubility and Exchange across the Air Sea Interface. The Redox Chemistry of Seawater. Organic Matter: Production and Destruction. Trace Elements in Seawater.The Chemistry of Marine Sediments.Classification of Sediments.Organic Biogeochemistry. Marine estuarine science and Biogeochemical Cycles, Organic Matter Sources and Transformation, Trace Metal and Nutrient Cycling (marine nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur) in marine, coastal and estuarine environment. Marine Carbon Cycle and Global Climate Change.Primary Productivity and Biogeochemical Cycles.

Introduction to modelling concepts, Types and time scales including process-based numerical models and scaled physical models.Behaviour-based numerical models.Geomorphological analysis and parametric equilibrium models. Concepts of computational fluid dynamics.Wave model types and applicability. Coastal morphodynamic model types and applications.Circulation models.Physical models.Case studies.Wave and current models and morphodynamic models.

Geological evolution of Arabian Sea. Geology of the coastal regions of Arabian sea. Physiographic and structural features of Arabian sea. Geodynamics and sedimentation of Makran and Indus continental margins. Geology of the Indus delta and Indus Fan systems. Geology of DSDP and ODP-Well sites from Arabian sea. Seismic stratigraphy of the northern Arabian sea. Mineralogy and geochemistry of Arabian sea sediments. Sea level changes, Oxygen Minimum Zone variations and its influence on Arabian sea sediments. Sedimentary record of climatic variations and Himalayan orogeny. Offshore hydrocarbon and Mineral resource prospects.

Introduction to marine pollution, chronic and acute inorganic and organic marine pollutants.Causes, effects and impacts on marine environment and humans.Ocean disposal (marine outfalls, shipboard wastes, dumping of sludge, disposal of dredge spoil, radioactive wastes) and its impact. Marine pollution control and mitigation measurements; oil spills contingency plan and combating techniques. Seawater intrusion.

Fate of chemicals and their biological effects on aquatic organisms.History of aquatic toxicology and general mechanisms of transport and transformation of chemicals in water/sediment systems and within aquatic organisms. Basic aquatic toxicological concepts and principles, concentration response relationship, criteria and approaches to single-species laboratory tests and multispecies field studies, the importance of good laboratory practices, and considerations for analyzing and interpreting aquatic toxicity data. Special types of organismal and biomarkers and biomonitoring, mathematical modeling, structure activity relationships, and aquatic risk assessment.

Importance of conservation, IUCN and their importance, conservation strategies- germplasm Banks cryopreservation, marine protected areas, sea ranching, mesh size regulation, fishing holidays, conservation and development at national and international level. Marine and coastal conservation, considering the economic, environmental, political and cultural influences on marine resource management.Biological links between wetlands and human activities, such as agriculture, coastal development, and fisheries.Legal framework for the protection and restoration of endangered wetlands.

Sea level changes and causes, Eustasy and Isostasy, Regional and global effects of sea level  changes. Effects of sea level changes on shorelines. Sea level Processes and indicators. Changes in coastal environments, Coastal dunes, Estuaries and Lagoons, Deltas. Physical processes, Coastal ecosystem, Human activities, Coastal issues. The impact of current and projected long-term environmental changes in both the northern and southern hemispheres bodies of water.

History of fisheries, Aquatic resources, Gears and fishing techniques, Population dynamics and modeling , Fisheries data analysis, Fisheries management, Fisheries perspective of Pakistan, Conservation and economics of fisheries.Current issues for the main legislation that governs Pakistan fisheries management.

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) I, II, III – Internal water, Territorial water, Archipelagic water, high sea, continental shelf, Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and its significance, limits of territorial water and International sea bed area. International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL).Coastal management, beach access and public trust, fisheries law, protection of marine mammals, ocean renewable energy development, marine reserves and ocean dumping.

The concepts, principles, approaches, processes and issues of integrated coastal and ocean management through a review of ICM (Integrated Coastal Zone Management or ICZM) history and development within a global context. An overview of different management strategies, as well as the meaning of integration in the governing of natural resources. Country case studies will be presented and examined. Successes and failures of integrated coastal and ocean management will be discussed and analysed. Mismanaged coastal and economic resources: the Black Sea, Newfoundland, Louisiana Region of the Gulf of Mexico, Belize, the Marshall Islands, and Antarctica.

Description of the genesis and nature of natural hazards, their physical and theoretical basis. The economic and social impact of natural hazards. Vulnerability of structures. Hazard mitigation. Policy and legislation. Planning response. The development of site-specific disaster plans. Search and rescue. Recovery. Emergency relief shelter management and risk analysis. Case study Deep Water Horizon oil.

An Overview-including background, history, need of remote sensing. Recent developments in remote sensing.Electromagnetic spectrum, source and sensor.Physical terms and units, radiometric terms and units.Thermal properties.Interaction of different wave-lengths with the earth’s surface and vegetation. Aerial Photographs: Films and cameras. Scale and corrections, displacement.Distance, area, height and slope measurements.Photo interpretation-drainage, vegetation, soils and rocks (with their structural attitude). Aerial and Satellite Imagery: Multi-spectral scanners. Sideways-looking airborne radar.Introduction to Digital Image Processing and GIS.Analysis of digital and raster data.Introduction to Earth Resource Satellites. Classification of landforms, land cover and land use. Image calibration, geo-rectification and classification are dealt with by providing grounding in the theory underlying image processing.

Risk assessment and management in the exploitation of the seas.Risk assessment and management for inland waters.Environmental risk assessment and management; historical perspective.Sources, measurement, and control of pollution in marine and coastal environments.Assessing risks to ecosystems and human health from genetically modified organisms. Risk assessment in legislation: Application of risk assessment in policy and legislation in developing countries. The economics of risk. Natural hazards, risk analysis and risk management.

Introduction; hydrological cycle, water resources and their role, water pollution, water shortage problem and solution, improving water productivity, integrated management of coastal and marine resources, wetlands resources, sustainable aquaculture practices, flood management, government Policies and Programs. Indus Water Treaty 1960, Indus Water Accord 1991, relevant intuitions and authorities.

Students will perform at least four weeks of fieldwork. It will lead to become familiar with major coastal erosion structures, interpretation and management of coastal zone. Fieldtrips will be followed by report writing and Viva Voce / Evaluation.